May 23, 2024

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, affecting around 90% of people with diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body either develops insulin resistance, meaning your cells become less responsive to insulin, or your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin. This also leads to high blood sugar levels.

Causes of type 2 diabetes

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Here are some factors that can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

  • Family history: Having a parent or sibling with diabetes increases your risk.
  • Weight: Being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
  • Inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle increases your risk.
  • Race/ethnicity: Certain races and ethnicities are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes.
  • Age: The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age.
  • Gestational diabetes: Having gestational diabetes, a type of high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy, increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Women with PCOS are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

  • Increased thirst and urination
  • Excessive hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections

Complications of type 2 diabetes

Over time, high blood sugar levels can damage various organs in your body. Potential complications of type 2 diabetes include:

  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy)
  • Kidney disease (nephropathy)
  • Eye problems (retinopathy)
  • Foot problems
  • Skin problems
  • Hearing problems
  • Sexual problems

Management of type 2 diabetes

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but there are ways to manage it and live a healthy life. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes and medications.

  • Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly are crucial for managing diabetes.
  • Medications: Several types of medications can help control blood sugar levels, including insulin, oral medications, and injectable medications.

Living with type 2 diabetes

With proper management, people with type 2 diabetes can live long and healthy lives. It’s important to work closely with your doctor to develop a personalized treatment plan that meets your individual needs. Regular monitoring of your blood sugar levels is essential for managing type 2 diabetes.

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